Cook thawed peaches and rum in a saucepan over medium-high heat, stirring often, 15 minutes or until peaches are tender.
Process peach mixture in a blender until smooth.
Combine flour and next 7 ingredients in a large bowl. Stir in peach puree, egg, melted butter, and vanilla; blend well. Stir in almonds. Pour into a greased and floured 8 1/2- x 4 1/2-inch loafpan.
Bake at 350° for 30 minutes. Cover with aluminum foil, if necessary, to avoid excessive browning, and bake 15 more minutes or until a long wooden pick inserted in center comes out clean. Cool on a wire rack 10 to 15 minutes; remove from pan, and cool completely on wire rack.