Cook first 4 ingredients in a heavy skillet in a well-ventilated area, stirring constantly, until fennel seeds are toasted. Remove from heat; cool.
Remove giblets and neck from turkey, and reserve for Bread Gravy (see recipe). Rinse turkey with cold water; pat dry.
Rub seasoning mixture in cavity and over entire bird. Cover and chill 8 hours.
Prepare charcoal fire in smoker with pan on second level (above normal level).
Place empty water pan on top level (do not fill with water). Place food rack on same level over water pan; place turkey on rack. Cover with smoker lid.
Cook 2 1/2 to 3 hours or until a meat thermometer inserted in thickest portion registers 180°. Let stand at room temperature 1 hour before carving.