The chicken, potatoes, and asparagus all roast in the oven, though for different lengths of time. You'll need to open the oven door several times; close it again quickly so that the temperature doesn't drop precipitously.
Heat the oven to 425°. In a large roasting pan, toss the potatoes and garlic with 1 1/2 tablespoons of the oil and 1/2 teaspoon salt. Put the pan in the upper third of the oven and cook, stirring once, for 15 minutes.
Meanwhile, coat the chicken with 1 tablespoon of the oil; arrange the pieces, skin-side up, in a smaller roasting pan. Sprinkle the chicken with the lemon juice, 1/4 teaspoon salt, and 1/4 teaspoon pepper. Top each piece of chicken with a piece of the butter.
Stir the potatoes. Put the chicken in the oven with the potatoes and cook for 10 minutes. Add the asparagus, the remaining 1 tablespoon oil, and 1/8 teaspoon each salt and pepper to the potatoes. Stir and continue cooking until the chicken, potatoes, and asparagus are done, 10 to 15 minutes longer. Remove both pans from the oven. Toss the potatoes and asparagus with the lemon zest. Serve with the chicken breasts.
Wine Recommendation: Asparagus can make wines taste sweet, but a New Zealand sauvignon blanc will meet the challenge with high acidity and intense fruitiness. The wine has its own hints of asparagus that will echo the vegetable here.
Quick From Scratch One-Dish Meals