In a 1 1/2- to 2-quart pan over medium heat, combine Beaujolais Nouveau, sugar, star anise, cloves, and cinnamon sticks.
Split vanilla bean lengthwise and scrape seeds into wine mixture; add pod. Simmer, stirring occasionally, for 10 minutes.
Meanwhile, peel pears (leave stems on) and add to pan; reduce heat to low, cover, and cook untl pears are tender when pierced, 10 to 15 minutes. Remve from heat and let stand, covered, for 1 hour.
With a slotted spoon, transfer pears to small bowls and return pan with poaching liquid to medium-high heat. Cook, stirring occasionally, until reduced to 1 cup, about 30 minutes. Drizzle liquid over pears; garnish with whole spices.