How to Make It
Cook bacon in a Dutch oven over medium-high, stirring occasionally, until bacon is starting to crisp, 8 to 10 minutes. Add garlic, 1 1/2 cups of the onions, and 1 cup of the bell pepper. Cook, stirring occasionally, until softened, about 6 minutes. Add steak and 6 cups of the broth, 1 teaspoon each of the salt and cumin, and 1/2 teaspoon of the pepper. Bring to a boil; cover and reduce heat to medium-low. Simmer until steak is tender, about 1 hour and 30 minutes.
Using tongs, remove steak from broth. Cool slightly, and shred meat into very thin threads. Add beans and panela to broth. Bring to a boil over medium-high. Reduce heat to medium-low, and simmer, uncovered, until beans are tender, about 2 hours.
Heat 1/4 cup of the oil in a large skillet over medium-high. Add 3/4 teaspoon each of the salt and achiote paste, and remaining 1 cup onions, 1 cup bell peppers, and 3/4 teaspoon cumin. Cook, stirring occasionally, until softened, about 6 minutes. Stir in shredded meat; cook, stirring occasionally, until vegetables are tender and meat begins in crisp around edges, about 8 minutes. Reduce heat to low, stir in Worcestershire sauce and remaining 1 cup broth; cook, stirring occasionally, until liquid has absorbed, 15 to 20 minutes.
Cut the plantains diagonally into 1/2-inch-thick slices. Heat remaining 1/4 cup oil in a large nonstick skillet over medium. Cook plantains until golden brown, about 2 minutes per side. Transfer to a plate lined with paper towels, and sprinkle with remaining 1/4 teaspoon salt.
Divide meat, plantains, and rice evenly between 4 plates. Using a slotted spoon, place beans on plates, and sprinkle with cheese.