Cut each goat cheese log into 6 (1/2-inch) slices. Combine flour and pepper in a shallow dish. Whisk together egg whites and 2 Tbsp. water in another shallow dish. Place panko in a third shallow dish. Dredge goat cheese in flour mixture, dip in egg mixture, and dredge in panko. Arrange goat cheese in a single layer in an aluminum foil-lined jelly-roll pan; cover and chill 30 minutes to 4 hours.
Cook half of goat cheese rounds in 2 Tbsp. hot olive oil in a large nonstick skillet over medium heat 2 to 3 minutes on each side or until lightly browned. Drain on paper towels. Repeat with remaining olive oil and goat cheese rounds.
Divide arugula and orange sections among 8 plates; drizzle with Pomegranate Vinaigrette. Top each salad with 3 goat cheese rounds.