Fregola, sometimes called friulli, is a flour product from Sardinia that is similar to pasta. It resembles lumpy golden pebbles and comes in small, medium and large.
Cook the fregola in a medium saucepan of boiling salted water until al dente, 8 to 9 minutes. Drain well in a colander, shaking off the excess water. Let stand for 15 minutes, shaking the colander occasionally to dry the grains.
In a large bowl, toss the olives with the onion, capers, lemon juice and olive oil. Add the fregola and toss to coat.
Using a sharp knife, peel the oranges, removing all of the bitter white pith. Working over the bowl, cut in between the membranes to release the sections. Squeeze the juice from the membranes into the salad, season with salt and white pepper and let stand for 10 minutes to blend the flavors. Scatter the orange zest over the top and serve.
Make Ahead: The salad can be prepared through Step 2 and refrigerated for up to 4 hours.