Grease a 9-inch round cake pan. Mix brown sugar and cinnamon in a bowl; stir in nuts. Roll out dough on a lightly floured surface to a 15-by-7-inch rectangle. Spread butter on top; sprinkle with sugar mixture.
Starting at long edge, roll up dough, jelly-roll fashion. Moisten edges with water; pinch to seal. Cut crosswise into 16 slices. Place rolls in pan, with space between them. Cover with a clean kitchen towel; let rise in a warm place until doubled in size, about 1 hour. Preheat oven to 400ºF. Bake until tops of rolls are golden brown, 15 to 20 minutes. Let stand 10 minutes.
Make frosting: Using an electric mixer on medium speed, beat confectioners' sugar, butter, cream cheese and vanilla until light, about 2 minutes. Frost rolls. Serve warm.