This white pie is a mouthwatering celebration of how great rye and cheese taste together. Be sure to allow the pizza dough to rise slowly so that it does not become too bready.
Prepare the Dough: Whisk together yeast, 1/4 cup of the warm water, and 1/4 cup of the rye flour in a small bowl. Let stand until bubbly, about 15 minutes.
Sift together bread flour, salt, ground caraway seeds, and remaining 1/2 cup rye flour. Place yeast mixture, flour mixture, oil, and remaining 1/2 cup warm water in bowl of a heavy-duty stand mixer fitted with a dough hook, and beat on medium speed until dough is smooth and elastic, 8 to 10 minutes, stopping to scrape down sides occasionally.
Place dough in a large bowl coated with cooking spray, turning to grease top, and cover tightly with plastic wrap. Let rise in a warm place (80ºF), free from drafts, until doubled in size, 2 to 3 hours. Punch down dough (can be refrigerated at this point and taken out of fridge for second rising when ready to use), re-cover with plastic wrap, and let rise 40 more minutes.
Preheat oven to 475°F. Place a pizza stone in oven. Place dough on a floured work surface. Roll to a 14-inch circle. Sprinkle stone with cornmeal. Place dough on stone. Prick liberally with a fork. Bake in preheated oven 5 minutes.
Prepare the Pizza: Whisk together ricotta, lemon zest, salt, and pepper. Spread ricotta mixture on dough, leaving a 1/2-inch border. Top with mozzarella and Parmesan cheeses. Bake at 475ºF until bottom of crust is cooked and cheese is melted, about 10 minutes. Drizzle pizza with balsamic glaze, and top with arugula; brush edges with olive oil.