Trim and discard tops and root ends from beets. Rinse beets, peel, and cut crosswise into 1/8- to 1/4-inch-thick slices.
In a 5- to 6-quart pan over high heat, bring 1 inch of water to a boil. Place beets on a rack over water, cover pan, reduce heat, and steam until beets are tender when pierced, about 15 minutes.
Meanwhile, in a bowl, mix orange peel, orange juice, vinegar, olive oil, and tarragon. Remove beets from steaming rack and add to bowl. Mix gently to coat. Add salt and pepper to taste.