Pulse garlic and ginger in a small food processor until the consistency of paste, or mince using a sharp knife. Set aside.
Sauté cumin and next 4 ingredients in hot oil in a Dutch oven over medium-high heat 30 seconds or until fragrant. Add onion; cook 3 minutes or until lightly browned.
Stir in garlic mixture, curry powder, and jalapeño. Cook, stirring constantly, 1 minute. Stir in tomatoes and yogurt; cook, stirring constantly, 5 minutes. Add broth and potatoes; bring to a boil. Cover, reduce heat, and simmer 10 minutes or just until potatoes are tender. Add cauliflower, green beans, and chickpeas. Cook, uncovered, 10 minutes or until vegetables are tender and mixture is thickened.
Remove bay leaf; add salt. Serve over rice, and top with chutney, if desired.
[B "Note:"] Mango chutney may be found in the condiment aisle of supermarkets.