In a 5- to 6-quart pan over medium-low heat, toast almonds, stirring until golden, 5 to 8 minutes. Remove from pan.
Add about 2 quarts water to pan and bring to a boil over high heat. Meanwhile, rinse beans and trim off stem ends. Add beans to boiling water and cook just until barely tender to bite, 3 to 6 minutes. Drain and rinse with cold water until cool.
Rinse preserved lemon thoroughly under running water; discard seeds and pulp. Finely chop lemon and put in a large bowl. Stir in rosemary, olive oil, and garlic, then add beans and salt and pepper to taste.
Just before serving, mix in almonds.
Note: Nutritional analysis is per serving.
You can buy preserved lemons in specialty food stores, or you can make your own (prepare them at least two weeks before using). You can make the salad through step 3 up to 6 hours ahead; cover and chill.