Preheat oven to 400°.
Place bread in a food processor; pulse 10 times or until coarse crumbs measure 1/2 cup. Sprinkle breadcrumbs on a baking sheet; bake at 400° for 2 1/2 minutes or until golden brown. Transfer to a shallow plate; cool completely. Slice goat cheese crosswise into 4 rounds. Press both sides of each round into breadcrumbs. Arrange in a single layer on a baking sheet; chill.
Heat oil in a large nonstick skillet over medium-high heat. Add onion and garlic; sauté 5 minutes. Stir in tomato, water, sugar, and pepper; cook 15 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add shrimp and salt; cook 4 minutes or until shrimp are done. Remove from heat. Cover; keep warm.
Bake cheese rounds at 400° for 10 minutes or until soft but still holding their shape.
Add pasta and 1/2 cup basil to tomato mixture; toss to combine. Divide pasta mixture evenly among 4 bowls; top each serving with 1 goat cheese round. Garnish with basil sprigs, if desired.