Peel and devein shrimp; set aside.
Place poblano chile and jalapeño pepper halves, skin sides up, on a foil-lined broiler pan; flatten with hand. Broil 10 minutes or until blackened. Place in a zip-top plastic bag; seal. Let stand 10 minutes. Peel and finely chop, and place in a bowl. Add mango, papaya, red onion, cilantro, juice, and salt.
Heat a large nonstick skillet over medium-high heat. Coat pan with cooking spray. Add shrimp; sauté 2 1/2 minutes on each side or until done. Place 1/2 cup salsa in center of each of 6 small serving plates; arrange 4 shrimp over salsa.