Prepare Winter Vegetable Salad:
Preheat oven to 400°.
Combine 1/4 cup water and pearl onions in a small baking dish; cover and bake at 400° for 10 minutes. Drain, and set aside.
Cook parsnips in boiling water 10 minutes. Add asparagus and carrots; cook 3 minutes or until tender. Remove vegetables with a slotted spoon and plunge vegetables into ice water; drain again and set aside. Cook beets in boiling water 15 minutes or until tender. Drain and plunge beets into ice water; drain again. Peel beets; set aside.
Heat oil in a large skillet over medium-high heat. Add mushrooms; sauté 1 minute. Add onion and garlic; sauté 1 minute. Add 1 cup water, vinegar, and parsley; bring to a boil. Reduce heat and cook 8 minutes. Remove from heat; let cool. Stir in tarragon, salt, and pepper. Set shiitake mushroom sauce aside, and keep warm.
Prepare Portobello-and-Escarole Gratin:
Combine first 9 ingredients in a shallow pan; stir well. Arrange mushrooms in a single layer on top of broth mixture, turning to coat. Cover and bake at 400° for 20 minutes; set aside.
Increase oven temperature to 425°.
Cook escarole in boiling water for 1 minute. Drain and plunge escarole into ice water; drain again.
Coat a gratin dish or 9-inch square baking dish with 1 teaspoon butter; set aside. Place 4 mushrooms, stem sides up, in prepared dish; reserve broth mixture. Divide escarole evenly among mushrooms in dish; top with remaining mushrooms, stem sides down. Spoon reserved broth mixture over mushroom stacks.
Combine breadcrumbs and remaining ingredients in a bowl; stir well. Sprinkle over mushroom stacks. Bake at 425° for 10 minutes or until breadcrumbs are lightly browned. Set aside; keep warm.
Prepare Roast Beef Tenderloin:
Reduce oven temperature to 350°.
Combine 1 teaspoon oil, salt, pepper, and cardamom, and stir well. Spread over all sides of beef. Heat 1 teaspoon oil in a 9-inch cast-iron skillet over medium-high heat, and add beef and cook 1 minute on each side or until browned. Place skillet in oven, and bake at 350º for 30 minutes or until a thermometer registers 145º (medium-rare) to 160º (medium). Let stand 10 minutes, and cut into 8 slices.
To complete recipe:
Arrange one Portobello-and-Escarole Gratin and 2 slices Roast Beef Tenderloin on each of 4 dinner plates. Divide Winter Vegetable Salad evenly among plates; spoon 1/2 cup shiitake mushroom sauce over each salad serving.