Steam asparagus, covered, 1 1/2 minutes. Set aside.
Cook noodles in boiling water 1 1/2 minutes; drain. Rinse under cold water. Drain well.
Combine lime juice and next 6 ingredients (juice through garlic) in a large bowl, and stir well with a whisk. Add asparagus, cooked noodles, shrimp, and next 6 ingredients (shrimp through mint), and toss well. Sprinkle with chopped peanuts.
Note: Cherry tomatoes, steamed sliced carrots, broccoli florets, sugar snap peas, or green beans may be substituted for asparagus.