Combine 2 cups warm water and yeast in the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with dough hook; let stand 5 minutes or until bubbles form on the surface. Weigh or lightly spoon 13 ounces flour (about 6 1/4 cups) into dry measuring cups; level with a knife. Add flour, syrup, and salt to yeast mixture. Mix dough at low speed 6 minutes. Turn dough out onto a floured surface. Knead 2 minutes or until smooth and elastic; add enough of remaining 1/4 cup flour, 1 tablespoon at a time, to prevent dough from sticking to hands. Place dough in a large bowl coated with cooking spray, turning to coat top. Cover and let rise in a warm place (85°), free from drafts, 30 minutes.
Turn dough out onto a lightly floured surface, and divide into 12 equal portions. Working with one portion at a time (cover remaining dough to prevent drying), shape each portion into a ball. Make a hole in the center of each ball using your index finger. Using fingers of both hands, gently pull dough away from center to make a 1 1/2-inch hole. Place bagels on a baking sheet coated with cooking spray. Lightly coat bagels with cooking spray; cover with plastic wrap. Let rise 10 minutes (bagels will rise only slightly).
Preheat oven to 450°.
Combine 12 cups water and 3/4 cup sugar in a Dutch oven, and bring to a boil. Gently lower 3 bagels into pan. Cook for 30 seconds. Transfer the bagels to a wire rack lightly coated with cooking spray. Repeat the procedure with remaining bagels, working in batches of Divide the bagels between two baking sheets lined with parchment paper. Bake at 450° for 7 minutes. Rotate pans, and bake for 7 minutes or until golden. Cool on wire racks.