1. Preheat oven to 325°.
2. Heat a large Dutch oven over medium heat. Add oil to pan; swirl to coat. Add sausages; cook 6 minutes, stirring frequently. Remove sausages from pan using a slotted spoon; drain. Wipe pan with paper towels, leaving browned bits on bottom of pan. Coat pan with cooking spray. Add onion and next 5 ingredients (through salt); cook 8 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add wine and cognac; bring to a boil. Cook 10 minutes or until liquid almost evaporates, scraping pan to loosen browned bits.
3. Place thyme sprigs, bay leaves, and cloves on a double layer of cheesecloth. Gather edges of cheesecloth together; tie securely. Add cheesecloth bag, broth, beans, and tomatoes to vegetable mixture; stir to combine. Return sausages to pan; stir. Bring mixture to a boil, and remove from heat.
4. Place bread in a food processor; pulse 10 times or until fine crumbs measure 2 cups. Melt butter in a large skillet over medium-high heat. Add crumbs to pan; sauté 5 minutes or until golden, stirring frequently. Sprinkle crumbs evenly over bean mixture. Bake at 325° for 40 minutes. Discard cheesecloth bag before serving.