To prepare dressing, combine first 8 ingredients, stirring with a whisk; set aside.
To prepare salad, combine water and 1/3 cup lemon juice in a Dutch oven. Cut off stem of each artichoke to within 1/2 inch of base; peel stem. Cut 1 inch off tops of artichokes. Remove bottom leaves and tough outer leaves, leaving tender heart and bottom. Cut artichokes lengthwise into quarters; place in lemon water. Bring to a boil, reduce heat, and simmer 20 minutes or until tender. Drain and plunge into cold water. Drain well. Remove fuzzy thistles from bottoms with a spoon.
Combine artichokes, fennel, and next 4 ingredients (fennel through capers) in a large bowl. Drizzle dressing over salad; toss gently to coat. Set aside.
To prepare shrimp, melt butter in a small saucepan over low heat. Add 2 garlic cloves; cook 1 minute, stirring frequently. Add rind and next 4 ingredients (rind through hot sauce), stirring with a whisk.
Cut prosciutto slices lengthwise into 1/2-inch strips. Wrap prosciutto strips around shrimp. Arrange shrimp on a broiler pan coated with cooking spray. Brush shrimp with half of butter mixture; broil 3 minutes. Remove pan from oven. Turn shrimp; brush with remaining butter mixture. Broil an additional 3 minutes or until shrimp are done.
Arrange 1 1/2 cups salad on each of 4 plates. Top each serving with about 4 ounces prosciutto-wrapped shrimp.