Scrub artichokes thoroughly with a stiff brush; cut into thin slices. Combine water and salt, stirring to dissolve. Add artichokes and onion; cover and refrigerate overnight. Drain artichokes and onion; set aside.
Combine remaining ingredients in a saucepan; bring to a boil and cook 5 minutes, stirring occasionally. Remove cinnamon, garlic, and cloves.
Spoon artichokes and onion into hot sterilized jars; pour hot vinegar mixture over vegetables, leaving 1/4-inch head space. Cover at once with metal lids, and screw bands tight. Process in boiling-water bath 5 minutes.
Note: Pickled artichokes should be stored in a cool place at least 2 weeks before using.