1. Cook penne according to package directions. Add broccoli rabe to pasta during the last 2 minutes of cooking. When penne is al dente and broccoli rabe is tender but still bright green, drain, reserving 1/3 cup pasta water; set aside.
2. While pasta is cooking, heat olive oil over medium heat. Add garlic and crushed red pepper, and cook 1 1/2–2 minutes or until fragrant but not browned. Add the chicken and reserved pasta water, and cook 1 minute or until heated through. Add preserved lemon rind (or lemon zest) and salt; remove from heat.
3. Toss chicken mixture with cooked pasta and broccoli rabe and grated fresh Parmesan; divide evenly among 4 bowls. Use a wide peeler to shave 12 (2-inch-long) strips of Parmesan. Place 3 shavings over each portion; serve immediately.