Combine lentils, 1/2 teaspoon salt, and 1 bay leaf in a medium saucepan. Cover with water to 3 inches above lentils; bring to a boil, reduce heat to medium-low, and simmer 25 minutes. Drain in a colander over a bowl, reserving 2 cups cooking liquid. Set aside.
Heat 1 tablespoon oil in a large cast-iron or nonstick skillet over medium heat. Add 1 bay leaf, onion, bell pepper, carrot, and garlic; sauté 12 minutes or until lightly browned. Stir in red wine, tomato paste, and mustard, and cook for 2 minutes or until vegetables are glazed. Add 1/4 teaspoon salt and black pepper. Add lentils and reserved cooking liquid. Discard bay leaves.
Bring 4 quarts water to a boil in a large stockpot. Add chard, and cook 5 minutes. Remove chard with a slotted spoon. Stir chard into lentil mixture. Add pasta to boiling water; cook 6 minutes. Drain; toss pasta with 2 tablespoons oil. Place 1 cup pasta on each of 6 serving plates; top each serving with 1 cup lentil mixture. Sprinkle each serving with 1 tablespoon cheese.