To prepare the dressing, combine the first 4 ingredients in a bowl, and stir well with a whisk.
To prepare the salad, combine 2 cups boiling water and vermicelli in a bowl; cover and let stand 10 minutes. Drain noodles; rinse with cold water. Cut noodles into three pieces.
Combine noodles, shrimp, and next 4 ingredients (shrimp through chile) in a large bowl. Pour dressing over noodle mixture, tossing gently to coat. Spoon 1 cup noodle salad onto each of 4 lettuce-lined plates. Sprinkle with cilantro and peanuts.