Place beef in a large Dutch oven. Add black peppercorns, mustard seeds, cloves, allspice, and bay leaves. Cover with water to 2 inches above beef; bring to a boil. Reduce heat; partially cover, and simmer 2 hours or until beef is tender. Remove beef from pan.
Strain cooking liquid through a sieve over a large bowl, reserving cooking liquid; discard solids. Place 1 large heavy-duty zip-top plastic bag inside each of 2 bowls. Pour reserved cooking liquid into bags; let stand 10 minutes (fat will rise to the top). Seal bags; carefully snip off 1 bottom corner of 1 bag. Drain liquid into pan, stopping before fat layer reaches the opening; discard fat. Repeat procedure with remaining bag. Add beef, carrot, rutabaga, parsnips, onions, and potatoes to pan; bring to a boil over high heat. Reduce heat, and simmer 5 minutes. Arrange cabbage on top; cover, reduce heat, and simmer 15 minutes or until cabbage is tender.
Remove beef from pan, and cut across the grain into 16 slices. Strain vegetable mixture through a sieve over a large bowl, reserving vegetable mixture and cooking liquid. Place 1 cabbage wedge, 1 1/2 cups vegetable mixture, and 2 beef slices into each of 8 large soup bowls. Pour 1/2 cup reserved cooking liquid over each serving; reserve remaining cooking liquid for another use.