Preheat oven to 350°.
To prepare aioli, combine first 5 ingredients in a small bowl; set aside.
To prepare crab cakes, combine bell pepper and next 7 ingredients (through black pepper) in a large bowl; stir well with a whisk. Add panko and crabmeat; toss gently. Divide the crab mixture into 12 equal portions, shaping each into a 1-inch-thick patty.
Heat oil in a large ovenproof skillet coated with cooking spray over medium-high heat. Add patties; cook 2 minutes. Carefully turn patties over. Place pan in oven; bake at 350° for 6 minutes.