Serrano ham is the air-cured ham common in Spanish tapas. Many supermarkets carry it in the deli section; you can also substitute prosciutto.
Combine first 7 ingredients in a large bowl, stirring well with a whisk. Add cantaloupe and ham; toss gently to coat.
Arrange arugula in an even layer on a serving platter. Top with cantaloupe mixture; sprinkle evenly with cheese. Serve immediately.
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