1. In a large pot, heat oil over medium heat. Add carrots, celery and onion; cook 8 minutes. Stir in garlic and cook 2 minutes. Add broth, 2 cups water and barley. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat to medium-low, cover and cook 25 minutes.
2. Meanwhile, mix together ground pork, 1/4 cup of the Parmesan, the parsley, 1/4 tsp of the salt and 1/4 tsp of the pepper. Roll into 30 meatballs, about 1 tbsp each.
3. Drop meatballs into soup. Stir in beans. Return to a simmer and cook 5 minutes. Stir in escarole and remaining 1/2 cup Parmesan, 11/4 tsp salt and 1/4 tsp pepper. Ladle into bowls and garnish with grated Parmesan, if desired.
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