Preheat oven to 450°.
To prepare filling, cut pineapple lengthwise into quarters. Cut each quarter crosswise into 1/2-inch-thick slices. Arrange pineapple in a single layer on a jelly-roll pan coated with cooking spray. Combine juice, honey, ginger, and cloves; drizzle over pineapple. Bake at 450° for 20 minutes or until the pineapple is lightly browned. Remove from oven; set aside.
Reduce oven temperature to 325°.
To prepare shortcakes, lightly spoon flour into dry measuring cups; level with a knife. Combine flour, coconut, baking powder, and salt, stirring well with a whisk. Place granulated sugar and butter in a large bowl; beat with a mixer at medium speed until well blended (about 5 minutes). Add the egg whites, 1 at a time, beating well after each addition. Beat in vanilla. Add flour mixture and milk alternately to sugar mixture, beginning and ending with flour mixture. Pour batter into a 9-inch round cake pan coated with cooking spray. Bake at 325° for 40 minutes or until a wooden pick inserted in center comes out clean. Cool in pan 10 minutes on a wire rack; remove from pan. Cool completely on wire rack.
Place shortcake on a cutting board or work surface. Carefully split shortcake in half horizontally using a serrated knife. Place bottom half of shortcake on a platter; top with pineapple mixture, whipped topping, and top of shortcake. Sprinkle with powdered sugar.
When mixing the dough for shortcakes, use a light hand and work quickly for the most tender cakes. If the recipe calls for kneading the dough, knead lightly only a few times so the dough doesn't become overworked.
Use a serrated knife to split the shortcakes. It will cut through the cakes without crumbling them.
You can bake the shortcakes up to a day ahead. Cool completely, and store at room temperature in a large zip-top plastic bag. To reheat, wrap in foil and heat at 350° for 10 minutes.
To freeze shortcakes, cool them completely, place in a heavy-duty zip-top plastic bag, and freeze up to two months. Thaw at room temperature, then reheat as instructed above.