In a large bowl, mix flour, sugar, soda, and salt.
In a small bowl, whisk together egg yolks, buttermilk, lemon peel, lemon juice, and 2 tablespoons butter.
In a deep bowl with a mixer on high speed, whip egg whites until they hold stiff, moist peaks.
Pour buttermilk mixture into flour mixture; stir to blend. Add egg whites and fold gently to blend.
On a buttered griddle or 10- to 12-inch frying pan over medium heat, pour batter in 1/2-cup portions, without portions touching. Cook until golden brown on each side, turning once, 4 to 5 minutes total. Keep warm. Repeat to cook remaining pancakes.
Meanwhile, in a 1- to 2-quart pan over medium heat, combine 2 tablespoons butter, syrup, and blueberries. Heat, stirring occasionally, until butter melts, about 3 minutes.