Combine first 5 ingredients in a large zip-top plastic bag; seal and marinate in refrigerator overnight or up to 2 days.
Prepare grill to medium-high heat.
Remove duck from bag; sprinkle evenly with 1/4 teaspoon salt and 1/8 teaspoon pepper. Place duck on a grill rack coated with cooking spray, and grill 4 minutes on each side or until desired degree of doneness. Remove duck from grill; cover and let stand 10 minutes. Cut the duck across grain into thin slices.
While duck stands, heat a large nonstick skillet over medium-high heat. Coat pan with cooking spray. Add mushrooms, 1/8 teaspoon salt, and remaining 1/8 teaspoon pepper; sauté 10 minutes or until tender. Add asparagus; sauté 2 minutes. Combine remaining 1/8 teaspoon salt, vinegar, and truffle oil, stirring with a whisk. Arrange about 1/2 cup mushroom mixture in center of each of 4 plates. Top each serving with 1 sliced duck breast half. Drizzle about 1 1/2 teaspoons vinaigrette over each serving.
This was absolutely delicious! My husband, who is a light eater, cleaned his plate. He doesn't like asparagus, so I substituted green beans. They took longer than 2 minutes to cook, and I added a little wine for liquid. Next time, I'll partially steam the green beans before adding to the mushroom mixture. This is definitely a special dinner recipe.
I didn't bring out a timer for the grill, so I overcooked the duck a bit. Past that, the dish was absolutely delicious! The mushroom and asparagus had tons of flavor and the marinade on the duck was so tasty. Check out my step by step instructions and photos at http://www.icancookthat.org/2012/05/grilled-duck-with-warm-mushroom-salad.html
I made this for a dinner party and it was very good. Because I wanted the juiciness from cooking with the skin on, I scored the skin and rendered a lot of the fat in a frying pan. I then grilled the breasts with skin on and then removed the skin for serving. It was a little time consuming but it worked well as I was a bit concerned about grilling with all that fat. The mushroom and asparagus salad was also good but I don't think it had quite enough truffle oil to really get the flavor. I served it all with a browned butter pecan rice from this site.
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