Place asparagus on a jelly-roll pan. Coat asparagus with cooking spray, and sprinkle with salt; toss gently to coat. Place asparagus on grill rack; grill 3 minutes or until crisp-tender, turning occasionally. Remove asparagus from grill; cut into 2-inch pieces.
Combine rind, juice, oil, and pepper in a large bowl, stirring with a whisk. Add asparagus and arugula; toss gently. Divide asparagus mixture evenly among 4 salad plates. Top each serving with 1 tablespoon cheese.