To prepare the dressing, combine the first 4 ingredients in a small saucepan. Bring to a boil, and cook for 2 minutes or until the sugar dissolves. Cool; stir in the lime juice, 1 tablespoon cilantro, 1 teaspoon chile, and garlic.
To prepare the salad, cook noodles in boiling water 1 1/2 minutes; drain. Rinse under cold water. Drain. Coarsely chop noodles. Combine noodles, shrimp, and next 5 ingredients (shrimp through celery) in a large bowl. Drizzle the dressing over the salad; toss gently to coat. Sprinkle with peanuts, 2 tablespoons cilantro, and 2 teaspoons chile.