Combine first 5 ingredients in a large mixing bowl; add 1 cup flour, stirring to coat well. Set aside.
Cream butter in a large mixing bowl; gradually add sugar, beating well. Add eggs, beating until well blended.
Dissolve soda in buttermilk. Combine remaining flour, cinnamon, allspice, and nutmeg. Add to creamed mixture alternately with buttermilk mixture and rum, beginning and ending with flour mixture. Stir in fruit mixture.
Drop by heaping teaspoonfuls 2 inches apart onto lightly greased cookie sheets. Bake at 325° for 12 minutes or until lightly browned. Remove from cookie sheets, and cool on wire racks.