Preheat oven to 350°.
To prepare cake, lightly spoon flour into dry measuring cups; level with a knife. Combine flour and next 6 ingredients (flour through cloves) in a large bowl. Add water and next 4 ingredients (water through eggs); stir just until well-blended. Fold in apple. Spoon batter into a 12-cup Bundt pan coated with cooking spray. Bake at 350° for 50 minutes or until a wooden pick inserted in center comes out clean. Cool in pan 10 minutes on a wire rack; remove from pan. Cool completely on wire rack.
To prepare glaze, combine 3/4 cup sugar, buttermilk, syrup, and baking soda in a medium saucepan. Cook over medium heat 6 minutes or until sugar dissolves and mixture is light brown, stirring constantly. Stir in vanilla. Pour over cake.