Bring 2 quarts water to a boil in a medium saucepan over medium-high heat; add edamame and garlic. Cook for 5 minutes. Drain in a colander over a bowl, reserving 1/2 cup liquid.
Combine edamame, garlic, 1/2 cup cooking liquid, and tofu in a food processor, and process until smooth (about 3 minutes). Add lemon juice, salt, and pepper, and pulse to combine.