The longer the cucumbers stand in the vinegar, the more limp and flavorful they become. Chill salad up to 2 hours.
Rinse shrimp; drain well. Cut in half lengthwise. Thinly slice cucumbers.
In a bowl, mix vinegar, sugar, and soy sauce. Add cucumbers and shrimp; mix to coat. Top with peanuts just before serving (see notes).
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