Bring barley and water to a boil in a small saucepan. Cover and boil for 2 more minutes. Turn off heat. Let sit, covered, for an hour, until water is absorbed.
Heat oil in a large pan or skillet over medium heat and cook onoion until softened, 5 minutes.
Add peppers and fennel. Cook until vegetables soften, 5 minutes. Add garlic and cook 1 minute.
Add bay leaves, apprika, tumeric and cayenne. Mix in barley and cook for 2 minutes. Add vinegar, saffron, 2 cups stock and salt. Bring to a vigerous simmer.
Stir and cook until liquid reduces by half, 5 minutes. Reduce heat and simmer until most liquid is absorbed, 15 to 20 minutes. Remove bay leaves and discard.
Stir in shrimp, peas, tomatoes, artichokes, olives and remaining 1/4 cup stock. Simmer for 2 minutes, then turn off heat. Cover tightly and let rest 10 minutes until shrimp are just cooked through. Divide among bowls and serve.
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