1. In a 5- to 6-quart pan over high heat, bring about 3 quarts water to a boil.
2. Trim ends and pull any strings from beans; rinse beans.
3. With a vegetable peeler, cut thin peel (colored part only) from orange. Cut enough of the peel into fine shreds to make 1 tablespoon. Cut orange into wedges.
4. When water boils, add linguine and cook 6 minutes. Add beans and cook until pasta and beans are tender to bite, 5 to 7 minutes longer. Drain and pour into a wide, shallow bowl.
5. Meanwhile, in a 10- to 12-inch frying pan over high heat, stir olive oil and cumin until seed is fragrant, about 1 minute. Add garlic, onions, and cherry tomatoes; stir until tomatoes are hot, about 2 minutes.
6. Add broth and orange peel; bring to a boil. Pour over noodles and beans, mix, and season to taste with salt and pepper. Serve with orange wedges to squeeze juice onto each portion.