Sauté shrimp in butter and garlic powder in a large Dutch oven 5 minutes; remove shrimp with a slotted spoon, and set aside. Reserve pan drippings.
Add flour to pan drippings; stir until smooth. Cook 1 minute, stirring constantly. Gradually add whipping cream, broth, and bay leaf; cook over medium heat, stirring constantly, until thickened and bubbly. Stir in salt, pepper, and chives. Remove and discard bay leaf.
Ladle soup into individual serving bowls; serve warm.