Cook cranberries, 1 cup sugar, and maple syrup in a nonaluminum saucepan over medium heat, stirring occasionally, 8 minutes or until cranberries pop. Toss together apple and 3 tablespoons flour; add to cranberry mixture. Stir in 1 teaspoon cinnamon; cool and set aside.
Combine 2 cups flour, remaining 1/4 cup sugar, baking powder, soda, and salt. Cut butter into flour mixture with a pastry blender until crumbly; add buttermilk, stirring until dry ingredients are moistened.
Turn dough out onto a lightly floured surface sprinkled with 1 teaspoon cinnamon; knead 3 or 4 times.
Pat dough to 3/4-inch thickness; cut with a 2 1/2-inch round cutter.
Pour cranberry mixture into a 13- x 9-inch baking dish. Top with cinnamon biscuits. Stir together remaining 1 teaspoon cinnamon, sliced almonds, and 1 tablespoon sugar; sprinkle over cobbler.