Remove 1 chile from can; mince, and set aside. Reserve remaining chiles and adobo sauce for another use.
Cook beef, onion, and garlic in a Dutch oven over medium-high heat until browned; stir to crumble. Drain.
Heat oil in pan; add chili powder and next 4 ingredients (chili powder through salt). Cook 1 minute, stirring constantly. Stir in minced chipotle chile, water, cherry tomatoes, and canned tomatoes. Bring to a boil; cover, reduce heat, and simmer 15 minutes. Stir in meat mixture and beans; simmer 10 minutes. Stir in bell peppers and vinegar; cook 3 minutes or until thoroughly heated.