Preheat the oven to 425° and position racks in the upper and middle thirds. Lightly butter 2 large baking sheets. In a large saucepan, combine the butter, water and salt and bring to a boil. Remove from the heat. Add the flour and whisk until smooth. Let cool slightly, then, using an electric mixer at medium speed, beat in the eggs 1 at a time, beating thoroughly between additions. Beat in all but 2 tablespoons of the cheese.
Using a 1-tablespoon ice cream scoop, scoop level mounds of the dough onto the baking sheets, 1 1/2 inches apart. Sprinkle with the remaining 2 tablespoons of cheese and bake for 28 minutes, until golden and risen; shift the pans from top to bottom and front to back halfway through baking.
Lower the oven temperature to 400°. Pierce each gougère near the bottom with a skewer and return the pans to the oven. Bake for about 8 minutes longer, until crisp and deeply golden. Transfer the gougères to racks to cool. Serve the gougères warm or at room temperature.