To prepare marinated shrimp, combine first 7 ingredients in a zip-top plastic bag. Add shrimp to bag; seal. Marinate in refrigerator 30 minutes, turning occasionally. Remove shrimp from bag. Place a large Dutch oven coated with cooking spray over medium-high heat until hot. Add shrimp; cook 3 minutes or until done. Remove from pan; set aside.
To prepare broth mixture, heat oil in pan over medium-high heat. Add onion, garlic, and minced jalapeño; sauté 4 minutes. Add squash and next 4 ingredients (squash through broth). Bring to a boil; cover, reduce heat, and simmer 10 minutes or until squash is tender. Add kale; cook 5 minutes.
Place noodles into each of 6 large bowls. Top with marinated shrimp, broth mixture, 2 tablespoons cilantro, and sliced jalapeño. Serve with lime wedges.