Combine beans and water to cover 3 inches in a large Dutch oven; soak 8 hours. Drain.
Combine beans, 14 cups water, 4 cups chopped onion, garlic, and remaining ingredients. Bring to a boil over high heat. Reduce heat, cover, and simmer, stirring occasionally, 1 hour. Add remaining chopped onion, and cook, covered, 2 hours or until beans are tender, adding more water, as needed.