Place dough in a microwave-safe bowl; microwave at MEDIUM (50% power) 45 seconds. Let stand for 5 minutes. Roll into 14-inch circle. Place on pizza pan; pierce with fork. Brush with oil. Bake at 450° for 14 minutes.
Wrap beet in parchment paper. Microwave at HIGH until tender (about 2 1/2 minutes). Thinly slice.
Combine arugula, shallot, beet, vinaigrette, and pepper; arrange on crust with cheeses and prosciutto.