Bring 2 cups chicken broth to a boil in a 2-quart saucepan; stir in barley. Cover, reduce heat, and simmer 10 minutes or until barley is tender. Remove from heat; let stand, covered, 5 minutes. Drain well.
Combine cooked barley, roasted red bell peppers, and next 3 ingredients in a large bowl.
Whisk together lemon juice and next 4 ingredients. Drizzle over barley mixture, tossing to coat. Sprinkle evenly with toasted pine nuts and crumbled feta cheese; serve immediately.
Brown Rice-Pine Nut Salad: Substitute 1 cup brown rice for barley. Increase broth to 2 1/4 cups, and increase cooking time to 45 minutes. Proceed as directed.