Combine first 6 ingredients in a saucepan; bring to a boil over medium-high heat, stirring constantly. Immediately remove from heat; cool syrup completely.
Combine pecans and next 3 ingredients, stirring well.
Cut phyllo sheets in half crosswise; cover with plastic wrap.
Brush 2 (13- x 9- x 2-inch) baking pans with melted butter. Place 8 phyllo sheets in 1 pan, brushing each sheet with butter; top with 2 cups pecan mixture.
Place 3 phyllo sheets over pecan mixture, brushing each sheet with butter; top with 2 cups pecan mixture. Repeat with 3 more phyllo sheets and 2 cups pecan mixture; top with 6 phyllo sheets, brushing all but the top sheet with butter. Repeat procedure with remaining phyllo sheets, butter, and pecan mixture in second pan.
Cut layers diagonally into 3/4-inch diamonds; gently brush with remaining butter. Insert a clove in center of each diamond.
Bake at 300° for 1 hour. Remove from oven, and pour syrup evenly over baklava. Cool completely in pans on wire racks.
Cut again diagonally; remove from pans, and store in airtight containers at room temperature.