Place an oven rack on lowest position and preheat to 500°F.
Combine oil and garlic. Trim asparagus; toss with salt, pepper and half of garlic mixture on a rimmed baking sheet. Roast for 5 minutes.
On a lightly floured surface, roll dough into a 16- by 10-inch rectangle. Generously sprinkle a second baking sheet with cornmeal. Place dough on sheet. Add cheese and asparagus, leaving a 1/2-inch border.
Bake until cheese has melted and crust is crisp, about 12 minutes. Top with remaining garlic oil. Cut into 8 slices. Serve.