Cook noodles according to package directions, omitting salt and fat.
While the noodles cook, combine chicken broth and next 6 ingredients (broth through sesame oil), stirring well.
Heat vegetable oil in large nonstick skillet over medium-high heat. Add garlic; sauté 45 seconds. Add asparagus; sauté 2 minutes. Add shrimp; sauté 2 minutes or until shrimp are done. Add broth mixture and onions to pan; cook over medium heat until hot. Add noodles, tossing gently to coat.