1. To prepare dressing, combine balsamic vinegar and figs in a small saucepan over medium-high heat; bring to a boil. Cover, remove from heat, and let stand 15 minutes. Combine vinegar mixture, 3 tablespoons water, and next 5 ingredients (through thyme) in a blender; process until smooth.
2. To prepare salad, place 1 1/3 cups arugula on each of 6 plates. Divide onion evenly among plates. Drizzle about 3 tablespoons dressing over each serving; sprinkle evenly with pepper and salt. Sprinkle evenly with bacon. Top each serving with 1 teaspoon goat cheese. Serve immediately.